Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale. To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging. These are often characterised as the norm, rather than the exception. I thought it would be useful to present an example where the geology is simple, and unsurprisingly, the method does work well, to show the quality of data that would have to be invalidated before a major revision of the geologic time scale could be accepted by conventional scientists. Geochronologists do not claim that radiometric dating is foolproof no scientific method is , but it does work reliably for most samples. It is these highly consistent and reliable samples, rather than the tricky ones, that have to be falsified for “young Earth” theories to have any scientific plausibility, not to mention the need to falsify huge amounts of evidence from other techniques. This document is partly based on a prior posting composed in reply to Ted Holden.

Chapter 2 – The Chronostratigraphic Scale

In response to Richard Dawkin’s statement: There’s questions such as: It’s deduced that we were created supernaturally not by naturalism’s random materialistic processes. If you explain angels as having their origins through supernatural laws, “without having any regard for physics, reality, etc. Spiritual people, and those who assume the existence of angels, cannot have it both ways with a false dichotomy that argues for a purely naturalistic origins of humanity – theistic evolution – while accepting we have a spirit, mind, intelligence, personality – which originated like that of angels.

Deep time is the concept of geologic modern philosophical concept was developed in the 18th century by Scottish geologist James Hutton (–). The age of the Earth has been determined to be, after a long and complex history of developments, around billion years.

Can science prove the age of the earth? No scientific method can prove the age of the earth and the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Further, it has to be assumed that the clock was never disturbed. There is no independent natural clock against which those assumptions can be tested. For example, the amount of cratering on the moon, based on currently observed cratering rates, would suggest that the moon is quite old. However, to draw this conclusion we have to assume that the rate of cratering has been the same in the past as it is now.

And there are now good reasons for thinking that it might have been quite intense in the past, in which case the craters do not indicate an old age at all see below. No scientific method can prove the age of the earth or the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Ages of millions of years are all calculated by assuming the rates of change of processes in the past were the same as we observe today—called the principle of uniformitarianism.

If the age calculated from such assumptions disagrees with what they think the age should be, they conclude that their assumptions did not apply in this case, and adjust them accordingly. If the calculated result gives an acceptable age, the investigators publish it. Examples of young ages listed here are also obtained by applying the same principle of uniformitarianism.

Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale

Moon Dust and the Age of the Solar System Answers in Genesis , the leading young-earth creationist ministry, disowns cosmic dust arguments. The most amazing thing about the cosmic dust argument is that it is still being used! It has coasted along on obsolete evidence, and nothing but obsolete evidence, for the last 25 years!!

It nicely illustrates how creationists borrow from each other and never do any outside reading. The obsolescence of this argument has been brought out in numerous debates and published in countless books, journals, and newsletters.

Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon’s fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.

Human timeline and Nature timeline Hutton based his view of deep time on a form of geochemistry that had developed in Scotland and Scandinavia from the s onward. Hutton’s innovative theory, based on Plutonism , visualised an endless cyclical process of rocks forming under the sea, being uplifted and tilted, then eroded to form new strata under the sea. In the sight of Hutton’s Unconformity at Siccar Point convinced Playfair and Hall of this extremely slow cycle, and in that same year Hutton memorably wrote “we find no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end”.

As a young naturalist and geological theorist, Darwin studied the successive volumes of Lyell’s book exhaustively during the Beagle survey voyage in the s, before beginning to theorise about evolution. Physicist Gregory Benford addresses the concept in Deep Time: John McPhee discussed “deep time” at length with the layman in mind in Basin and Range , parts of which originally appeared in the New Yorker magazine. Consider the Earth’s history as the old measure of the English yard, the distance from the King’s nose to the tip of his outstretched hand.

One stroke of a nail file on his middle finger erases human history.

Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.

We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.

Figure 2. How relative dating of events and radiometric (numeric) dates are combined to produce a calibrated geological time scale. In this example, the data demonstrates that “fossil B time” was somewhere between and million years ago, and that “fossil A time.

Herbchronology Dating methods in archaeology[ edit ] Same as geologists or paleontologists , archaeologists are also brought to determine the age of ancient materials, but in their case, the areas of their studies are restricted to the history of both ancient and recent humans. Thus, to be considered as archaeological, the remains, objects or artifacts to be dated must be related to human activity. It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others.

Nevertheless, the range of time within archaeological dating can be enormous compared to the average lifespan of a singular human being. As an example Pinnacle Point ‘s caves, in the southern coast of South Africa , provided evidence that marine resources shellfish have been regularly exploited by humans as of , years ago. It was the case of an 18th-century sloop whose excavation was led in South Carolina United States in Dating material drawn from the archaeological record can be made by a direct study of an artifact , or may be deduced by association with materials found in the context the item is drawn from or inferred by its point of discovery in the sequence relative to datable contexts.

Dating is carried out mainly post excavation , but to support good practice, some preliminary dating work called “spot dating” is usually run in tandem with excavation.

Recent Advances in Understanding the Geology of Diamonds

Human timeline and Nature timeline Hutton based his view of deep time on a form of geochemistry that had developed in Scotland and Scandinavia from the s onward. Hutton’s innovative theory, based on Plutonism , visualised an endless cyclical process of rocks forming under the sea, being uplifted and tilted, then eroded to form new strata under the sea. In the sight of Hutton’s Unconformity at Siccar Point convinced Playfair and Hall of this extremely slow cycle, and in that same year Hutton memorably wrote “we find no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end”.

As a young naturalist and geological theorist, Darwin studied the successive volumes of Lyell’s book exhaustively during the Beagle survey voyage in the s, before beginning to theorise about evolution. Physicist Gregory Benford addresses the concept in Deep Time: John McPhee discussed “deep time” at length with the layperson in mind in Basin and Range , parts of which originally appeared in the New Yorker magazine.

Examines the last two decades’ advances in analyzing and understanding the formation of natural diamonds, and their relation to the earth’s formation.

Rubidium—strontium method The radioactive decay of rubidium 87Rb to strontium 87Sr was the first widely used dating system that utilized the isochron method. Because rubidium is concentrated in crustal rocks, the continents have a much higher abundance of the daughter isotope strontium compared with the stable isotopes. A ratio for average continental crust of about 0. This difference may appear small, but, considering that modern instruments can make the determination to a few parts in 70, , it is quite significant.

Dissolved strontium in the oceans today has a value of 0. Thus, if well-dated, unaltered fossil shells containing strontium from ancient seawater are analyzed, changes in this ratio with time can be observed and applied in reverse to estimate the time when fossils of unknown age were deposited. Dating simple igneous rocks The rubidium—strontium pair is ideally suited for the isochron dating of igneous rocks.

As a liquid rock cools, first one mineral and then another achieves saturation and precipitates, each extracting specific elements in the process. Strontium is extracted in many minerals that are formed early, whereas rubidium is gradually concentrated in the final liquid phase.

Chronological dating

Herbchronology Dating methods in archaeology[ edit ] Same as geologists or paleontologists , archaeologists are also brought to determine the age of ancient materials, but in their case, the areas of their studies are restricted to the history of both ancient and recent humans. Thus, to be considered as archaeological, the remains, objects or artifacts to be dated must be related to human activity.

It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others.

One of my ongoing issues, which is still ongoing, and still an issue, is how to share some of the insights I get from hitbodedut, and from research, and from Breslov, without completely frying people’s brains out and doing more harm than good.

Land Relief The physiography of Africa is essentially a reflection of the geologic history and geology that is described in the previous section. The continent , composed largely of a vast rigid block of ancient rocks, has geologically young mountains at its extremities in the highlands of the Atlas Mountains in the northwest and the Cape ranges in the south. Between these mountainous areas is a series of plateau surfaces, with huge areas that are level or slightly undulating, above which stand occasional harder and more resistant rock masses.

Kilimanjaro 19, feet [5, metres] is the highest point on the continent; the lowest is Lake Assal feet [ metres] below sea level in Djibouti. In proportion to its size, Africa has fewer high mountains and fewer lowland plains than any other continent. The limited areas above 8, feet are either volcanic peaks or resistant massifs. All the land below feet occurs within miles of the coast, except for two small basins in the Sahara.

Summit of Kilimanjaro, northeastern Tanzania. South of a line drawn from near the mouth of the Congo River to the Gulf of Aden , most of the land lies 1, feet or more above sea level , and much of it exceeds 3, and even 4, feet. North of the line there is relatively little land above 3, feet, most of the area being between and 1, feet above sea level; there are also broad coastal lowlands, except in the region of the Atlas Mountains and, in the east, beyond the Nile.

How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?

What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms? Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption.

But, things just aren’t that easy.

Dear Twitpic Community – thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.

Shirey and James E. The loose crystals range from 1. Photo by Orasa Weldon. ABSTRACT It has been more than two decades since diamond ages have proven to be up to billions of years older than their host magmas of kimberlite or lamproite. Since then, there have been significant advances in the analysis of diamonds and their mineral inclusions, in the understanding of diamond-forming fluids in the mantle, and in the relationship of diamonds to the deep geology of the continents and the convecting mantle.

The occurrence of natural diamonds is remarkable and important to earth studies. This article reviews current thinking of where, how, when, and why natural diamonds form. Analytical advances, improved geologic knowledge, and the emergence of new diamond-producing regions such as the Slave craton of Canada have all contributed to this change. The most prized specimens for research are flawed with visible inclusions figure 2 , for these carry actual samples of mantle minerals from depths as great as km beneath the surface.

Diamond provides the perfect container for mantle minerals, isolating them from the high pressure and temperature reactions within the earth for geologic time scales. Even low elemental concentrations and minute features in diamond can now be analyzed using instruments with higher sensitivity and resolution. As a result, study combining the inclusion and its diamond host is a powerful tool for geologic research, which itself has improved our understanding of diamond formation.

These photos show inclusions of silicate minerals in natural diamond whose background reflectivity has been enhanced by faceting: Photomicrographs by John Koivula.

Age of the earth

.

Age of the earth evidences for a young age of the earth and the universe. by Don Batten. Published: 4 June , last updated 13 September There are many categories of evidence for the age of the earth and the cosmos that indicate they are much younger than is generally asserted today.

.

Chapter 2 – The Chronostratigraphic Scale

.

Dating – Rubidium–strontium method: The radioactive decay of rubidium (87Rb) to strontium (87Sr) was the first widely used dating system that utilized the isochron method. Rubidium is a relatively abundant trace element in Earth’s crust and can be found in many common rock-forming minerals in which it substitutes for the major element potassium.

.

Four ways to understand the Earth’s age – Joshua M. Sneideman